Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension Among Outpatients



Richie Ray Barry Boas(1), Ermi Girsang(2), Rapael Ginting(3), Putranto Manalu(4Mail),
(1) Faculty of Medicine Universitas Prima Indonesia, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Medicine Universitas Prima Indonesia, Indonesia
(3) Faculty of Public Health Universitas Prima Indonesia, Indonesia
(4) Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Prima Indonesia, Indonesia

Mail Corresponding Author


DOI : https://doi.org/10.30604/jika.v6i1.412

Full Text:    Language : En
Submitted : 2020-12-16
Published : 2021-03-22

Abstract


Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The prevalence rate of hypertension in North Sumatra is relatively high, namely 29.19%. Meanwhile, the Medan City Health Office recorded the number of hypertensive sufferers as many as 51,354 people from 2008 to 2014. A preliminary study at the Bandung Medan Hospital shows that hypertension is the 10 largest outpatient disease in 2016-2018. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in patients referred to first-level health facilities at Bandung Hospital. This type of research is a quantitative descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. Sampling was carried out by a purposive sampling method, with the criteria being hypertensive outpatients visiting the Bandung Hospital for a month (7 November-6 December 2019). The sample size in this study was 92 people. Primary data collection was obtained through direct measurement of blood pressure and distributing questionnaires to assess risk factors using a modified WHO STEPS instrument. In measuring blood pressure, a sphygmomanometer is used and also checks medical records. The results of this study indicate that there are 65.2% of outpatients diagnosed with hypertension. Chi-square statistical test showed that body mass index (0.000) and vegetable dietary habits (0.902) influence the occurrence of hypertension. After adjusting for confounding factors, only body mass index still affected hypertension incidence (OR=5.61; 95% CI=1,686-18,659). Diet and smoking habits do not show a significant effect on risk factors for hypertension.

 

 

Abstrak: Hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko utama yang bersifat independent untuk penyakit arteri koroner, stroke, gagal jantung, dan gagal ginjal. Angka prevalensi hipertensi di Sumatera Utara cukup tinggi yaitu sebesar 29,19%. Sementara itu Dinas Kesehatan Kota Medan mencatat jumlah penderita penyakit hipertensi sebanyak 51.354 orang sepanjang tahun 2008 sampai dengan 2014. Studi pendahuluan di Rumah Sakit Bandung Medan menunjukkan bahwa penyakit hipertensi merupakan 10 penyakit terbesar rawat jalan pada tahun 2016-2018. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi dan faktor resiko terjadinya hipertensi pada pasien rujukan fasilitas kesehatan tingkat pertama di Rumah Sakit Bandung. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif dengan rancangan cross-sectional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling dengan kriteria adalah pasien rawat jalan hipertensi yang berkunjung di Rumah Sakit Bandung Medan selama sebulan (7 November–6 Desember 2019). Besar sampel pada penelitian ini sejumlah 92 orang. Pengumpulan data primer diperoleh melalui pengukuran langsung tekanan darah dan membagikan kuesioner untuk menilai faktor resiko dengan menggunakan modifikasi instrumen WHO STEPS. Dalam pengukuran tekanan darah digunakan sfigmomanometer dan juga memeriksa rekam medis. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat 65.2 % pasien rawat jalan yang terdiagnosa hipertensi. Uji statistik  dengan Chi-square menunjukkan indeks masa tubuh (0,000) dan kebiasaan diet sayur (0,902) yang mempengaruhi terjadinya hipertensi. Setelah dilakukannya penyesuaian terhadap faktor-faktor perancu, hanya indeks masa tubuh yang tetap mempengaruhi kejadian hipertensi (OR=5.61; CI 95%=1.686-18.659). Pola diet dan kebiasaan merokok tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang signifikan sebagai faktor resiko hipertensi.


Keywords


Hypertension; Body mass index; Diet pattern; Smoking habit; Hipertensi; Indeks Massa Tubuh; Pola Diet; Kebiasaan Merokok

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