Dual Extracts of Star Fruit Leaves and Toddalia accuelata Leaves as Antiobesity in Rats

Isti Sundari(1*), Dono Indarto(2), Paramasari Dirgahayu(3)
(1) Universitas Sebelas Maret
(2) Universitas Sebelas Maret
(3) Universitas Sebelas Maret
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i1.787

Abstract

The imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure can lead to obesity. Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and can cause premature death worldwide. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of Star Fruit Leaves Extract (SLE) and T. accumulate Leaves Extract (TLE) combination on Body Weight (BW), Body Mass Index (BMI), and Fat Content (FC) of obese rats. Male Wistar rats aged 5 weeks, with BW of 100-150 g were induced with a High Fat Diet (HFD) and 10% fructose solution for 30 days. A total of 18 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely Negative Control (NC), Therapy (T), and Normal (N). After 35 days of treatment compared to the NC group, the mean BW of the T group was significantly lower (p=0.014) and the mean decrease was significantly higher (p less than 0.001).  Similarly, the mean BMI and FC of the T group were significantly lower and the decrease in the mean of both groups was significantly higher than that of the NC group (p less than 0.001). Therefore, the combination of SLE and TLE can be used as a treatment for obesity because it reduces BW, BMI, and FC better than only a low-calorie diet.



Abstrak: Ketidakseimbangan antara asupan makanan dan pengeluaran energi dapat menyebabkan obesitas. Obesitas merupakan faktor risiko utama terjadinya penyakit kronis seperti penyakit kardiovaskular dan dapat menyebabkan kematian dini di seluruh dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kombinasi Ekstrak Daun Belimbing (EDB)dan Ekstrak Daun T. accuelata (EDT) terhadap Berat Badan (BB), Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT), dan kandungan lemak tikus obesitas. Tikus wistar jantan umur 5 minggu, BB 100-150 g diinduksi dengan pakan tinggi lemak dan larutan fruktosa 10% selama 30 hari. Sebanyak 18 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi 3 kelompok yaitu Kontrol Negatif (KN), Terapi (T), dan Normal (N). Setelah 35 hari perlakuan dibandingkan dengan kelompok KN, rata-rata BB kelompok T secara signifikan lebih rendah (p=0,014) dan rata-rata penurunannya lebih besar secara signifikan (p kurang dari 0,001). Demikian pula, rata-rata IMT dan kandungan lemak kelompok T secara signifikan lebih rendah dan penurunan rata-rata kedua kelompok tersebut secara signifikan lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kelompok KN (p kurang dari 0,001). Oleh karena itu, kombinasi EDB dan EDT dapat digunakan sebagai pengobatan obesitas karena dapat menurunkan BB, IMT, dan kandungan lemak lebih baik daripada diet rendah kalori saja.

Keywords


Health; Healthcare; Public Health; Star Fruit; Toddalia accuelata; Obesity; Belimbing manis; Obesitas

References


Aladaileh SH, Saghir SA, Murugesu K, Sadikun A, Ahmad A, K. G. et al. (2019). Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Averrhoa Carambola extract in high-fat diet-fed rats. Biomedicine, 7(3), 72.

Canyelles M, Tondo M, Cedo L, Farras M, Escola-Gil JC, B.-V. F. (2018). Trimethylamine N-Oxide: A link among diet, gut microbiota, gene regulation of liver and intestine cholesterol homeostasis and HDL function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(10), 3228.

Caton PW, Nayuni NK, Khan NQ, Wood EG, C. R. (2011). Fructose induces gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism. Journal of Endocrinolgy, 208(3), 273–283.

DeFronzo RA, Hompesch M, Kasichayanula S, Liu X, Hong Y, P. M. et al. (2013). Characterization of renal glucose reabsorption in response to dapaglifozin in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(10), 3169–3176.

Ferrannini E, Baldi S, Frascerra S, Astiarraga B, Heise T, B. R. et al. (2016). Shift to fatty substrate utilization in response to Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 inhibition in subjects without diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 65(50), 1190–1195.

Fonseca DC, Sala P, Ferreira BA, Reis J, Torrinhas RS, Bendavid I, W. D. (2018). Body weight control and energy expenditure. Clinical Nutrition Experimental, 20, 55–59.

Gruzdeva O, Borodkina D, Uchasova E, Dyleva Y, B. O. (2019). Leptin resistance: underlying mechanism and diagnosis. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, 12, 191–198.

Hakkak, R., Bell, A. (2016). Obesity and the link to chronic disease development. Journal of Obesity and Chronic Diseases, 1(1), 1–13.

Hannou SA, Haslam DE, McKeown NM, H. M. (2018). Fructose metabolism and metabolic disease. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 128(2), 545–555.

Hardani, E., Lestariana, W., S. (2014). Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) var Assamica extract supplementation to body fat total and lipid profi le of overweight and obese adult women. Indonesian Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 10(4), 209–2017.

Hidayat M, Soeng S, Prahastuti S, Erawijantari PP, W. W. (2015). Inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of Detam Soybean (Glycine max) seed and Jati Belanda (Guazumaulmifolia) leaves on adipogenesis and obesity model in 3T3-L1 Cell line. Journal of Scientific Research Dan Reports, 6(4), 304–312.

Huang J, Wang Y, Xie Z, Zhou Y, Zhang Y, W. X. (2014). he anti obesity effect of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(11), 1075–1087.

Irudayaraj SS, Sunil C, Duraipandiyan V, I. S. (2013). In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. Leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 60, 135–140.

Isnawati A, A. R. (2015). Molecular docking study of Catechin Gallate, Epicatechin Gallate, Gallocatechin Gallate, and Epigallocatechin Gallate as dyslipidemia drug candidates. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 5(1), 25–32.

Klop B, Elte JW, C. M. (2013). Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients, 5(4), 1218–1240.

Lee S-I, Kim, J-W, Lee Y-K, Yang SW, Lee I-A, Sah J-W, K. S.-D. (2011). Anti-obesity effect of Monascus pilosus mycelial extract in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 54(3), 197–205.

Ma W, Huang T, Zheng Y, Wang M, Bray GA, S. F. et al. (2016). Weight-loss diets, adiponectin, and changes in cardiometabolic risk in the 2-year pounds lost trial. The Jurnal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 101(6), 2415–2422.

Macakovaa K, Afonsob R, Sasoc L, M. P. (2019). The influence of alkaloids on oxidative stress and related signaling pathways. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 134, 429–444.

Mangge H, Summers K, Almer G, Prassl R, Weghuber D, S. W. et al. (2013). Antioxidant food supplements and obesity-related inflammation. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 20(1), 1–8.

Moresco HH, Queiroz GS, Pizzolatti MC, B. I. (2012). Chemical constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of Averrhoa Carambola leaves. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 22(2), 319–324.

Narciso J, Silva AJ, Rodrigues V, Monteiro MJ, Almeida A, Dias RV, C. A. (2019). Behavioral, contextual and biological factors associated with obesity during adolescence: a systematic review. PLoS One, 14(4), 1–20.

Nurfitria FB, Wulandari RAJS, I. D. (2017). Potency of Indonesian Herbal Compounds as Human Flavin Containing Monooxygenase 3 Inhibitor for Atherosclerosis Prevention. Nexus of Translasional Medicine, 6(1).

Od-Ek H, Deenin W, Malakul W, Phoungpetchara I, T. S. (2020). Anti?obesity effect of Carica papaya in high?fat diet fed rats. Biomedical Reports, 13(4), 30.

Patsalos O, Dalton B, Leppanen J, Ibrahim MAA, H. H. (2020). Impact of TNF-? inhibitors on body weight and BMI: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 481.

RA, R. (2015). Molecular anchoring: Exploration of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporer 2 inhibitors from Indonesian herbal plant compounds as a therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Rasamison VE, Brodie PJ, Merino EF, Cassera MB dan Ratsimbason MA, R. S. et al. (2016). Furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones from the stem bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker) T.G. Hartley. Natural Products Bioprospecting, 6(5), 261–265.

RD, F. (2019). The effect of dictamine in Toddalia aculeata extracts on cytotoxicity of vero cell line (atheroschlerosis drug development). Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta.

RK, U. (2016). Toddalia aculeata: A comprehensive review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology and its traditional use. Advances Biomedicine and Pharmacy, 3(5), 296–306.

Ruban A, Stoenchev K, Ashrafian H, T. J. (2019). Current treatments for obesity. Clinical Medicine, 19(3), 205–212.

Saghir, S. A. M., Sadikun, A., Al-Suede, F.S.R., Majid, A. M. S. A., Murugaiyah, V. (2016). Antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of different parts of Star fruits. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnoogyl, 17(999), 915–925.

Sahebkar A, Simental-Mendía LE, Reiner Z, Kovanen PT, Simental-Mendia M, Bianconi V, P. M. (2017). Effect of orlistat on plasma lipids and body weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials. Pharmacoogical Research, 122, 53–65.

Sun N-N, Wu T-Y, C. C.-F. (2016). Natural dietary and herbal products in anti-obesity treatment. Molecules, 21(10), 1–15.

Tun S, Spainhower CJ, Cottrill CL, Lakhani HV, Pillai SS, D. A. (2020). Therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in ameliorating obesity phenotype and associated comorbidities. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11(1234), 11–20.

WHO. (2020). Obesity and overweight. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and overweight

Zarghani SS, Soraya H, Zarei L, A. M. (2016). Comparison of three different diet-induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease protocols in rats: a pilot study. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(1), 9–15.


Article Statistic

Abstract view : 307 times
Fulltext (Bahasa Indonesia) views : 189 times

Dimensions Metrics

How To Cite This :

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.