Lived Experiences of The Recovery Process of People with Schizophrenia During a Pandemic

I Dewa Gede Candra Dharma(1), Ahsan Ahsan(2), Retno Lestari(3*)
(1) Universitas Brawijaya
(2) Universitas Brawijaya
(3) Universitas Brawijaya
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i1.820


The existence of social restrictions and activities during the pandemic in the last two years may have hampered the recovery process of people with schizophrenia. The Denpasar City Empowered House Rehabilitation Center is designed as a place for people with schizophrenia in the community to recover, become independent, and be productive. Several studies have attempted to explain how people with schizophrenia recover, but little is known about how this happens during pandemics. Therefore, this study used interpretive phenomenological methods to explore and understand the meaning of life for people with schizophrenia. The participants were 5 people with schizophrenia who were at the Denpasar Empowered House. Furthermore, interviews were conducted using in-depth techniques. The interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the Creswell approach. The results obtained 8 themes, namely: (1) Feeling cared for by others, (2) Accepted by the community, (3) Having a positive self-identity, (4) Ngayah helping the recovery process, (5) More helpful to explore self-ability, (6) To recover, (7) Enjoy active socializing, and (8) Situations that affect self-ability. It can be concluded that the participants interpret the recovery process as a goal to return to being part of the community during a pandemic.

Abstrak: Adanya pembatasan dan aktivitas sosial selama pandemi dalam dua tahun terakhir dapat menghambat proses pemulihan penderita skizofrenia. Pusat Rehabilitasi Rumah Berdaya Kota Denpasar dirancang sebagai wadah bagi penderita skizofrenia di masyarakat untuk pulih, mandiri, dan produktif. Beberapa penelitian telah menjelaskan bagaimana penderita skizofrenia dapat pulih, tetapi sedikit yang diketahui tentang bagaimana proses pemulihan penderita terjadi selama pandemi. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini menggunakan metode interpretif fenomenologis yang bertujuan untuk menggali dan memahami makna hidup bagi penderita skizofrenia. Partisipan adalah 5 orang penderita skizofrenia yang berada di Rumah Berdaya Denpasar. Selanjutnya, wawancara dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik wawancara mendalam. Data wawancara ditranskripsikan secara verbatim dan dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan Creswell. Hasil yang diperoleh yaitu sebanyak 8 tema: (1) Merasa diperhatikan oleh orang lain, (2) Diterima oleh masyarakat, (3) Memiliki identitas diri yang positif, (4) Ngayah membantu proses pemulihan, (5) Lebih bermanfaat untuk mengeksplorasi kemampuan diri, (6) Untuk memulihkan diri, (7) Menikmati bersosialisasi secara aktif, dan (8) Situasi yang mempengaruhi kemampuan diri. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah penderita skizofrenia dapat memaknai proses pemulihan sebagai tujuan untuk kembali menjadi bagian dari masyarakat selama pandemi.


recovery; schizophrenia; empowered house; ngayah


Apostolopoulou, A., Stylianidis, S., Issari, P., Chondros, P., Alexiadou, A., Belekou, P., Giannou, C., Karali, E. K., Foi, V., & Tzaferou, F. (2020). Experiences of Recovery in EPAPSY’s Community Residential Facilities and the Five CHIME Concepts: A Qualitative Inquiry. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(February), 1–12.

Ayu, I. G., Widiadnya, V., Dian, K., & Candra, P. (2018). Implicatures and Inference of Balinese Communication. Retrieved August 13, 2021, from

Beckers, T., Jaeqx-van Tienen, L., Willems, R., Koopmans, M., & Corstens, D. (2020). Personal-recovery-oriented community mental healthcare: qualitative evaluation of a developmental project. BMJ Open, 10(6), e035709.

Boulanger, M., Dethier, M., Gendre, F., & Blairy, S. (2013). Identity in schizophrenia: A study of trait self-knowledge. Psychiatry Research, 209(3), 367–374.

Butler, J. D. (2012). Playing with madness: Developmental Transformations and the treatment of schizophrenia. Arts in Psychotherapy, 39(2), 87–94.

Chaudhari, B., Saldanha, D., Kadiani, A., & Shahani, R. (2018). Evaluation of treatment adherence in outpatients with schizophrenia. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 195–201. 10.4103/ipj.ipj_24_17.

Chen, G. fang, Luo, H. yue, Wu, G., Zhou, C., Wang, K., Feng, K., Xiao, Z. wen, Huang, J. jing, Gan, J. chun, Zhao, P., Liu, P. Z., & Wang, Y. (2020). Improving Mental Time Travel in Schizophrenia: Do Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future Make a Difference? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44(5), 893–905.

Clifford, L., Crabb, S., Turnbull, D., Hahn, L., & Galletly, C. (2020). A qualitative study of medication adherence amongst people with schizophrenia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 34(4), 194–199.

Hu, C.-P., & Chang, Y.-Y. (2017). John W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(2), 205–207.

De Mare, A., Cantarella, M., & Galeoto, G. (2018). Effectiveness of Integrated Neurocognitive Therapy on Cognitive Impairment and Functional Outcome for Schizophrenia Outpatients. Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, 2018.

Ebrahimi, H., Seyedfatemi, N., Namdar Areshtanab, H., Ranjbar, F., Thornicroft, G., Whitehead, B., & Rahmani, F. (2018). Barriers to Family Caregivers’ Coping With Patients With Severe Mental Illness in Iran. Qualitative Health Research, 28(6), 987–1001.

El-Monshed, A., & Amr, M. (2020). Association between perceived social support and recovery among patients with schizophrenia. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 13(July), 100236.

Esposito, C. M., D’Agostino, A., Dell Osso, B., Fiorentini, A., Prunas, C., Callari, A., Oldani, L., Fontana, E., Gargano, G., Viscardi, B., Giordano, B., D’Angelo, S., Wiedenmann, F., Macellaro, M., Giorgetti, F., Turtulici, N., Gambini, O., & Brambilla, P. (2021). Impact of the first Covid-19 pandemic wave on first episode psychosis in Milan, italy. Psychiatry Research, 298, 113802.

Fortune, B., Fox, J., & Larsen, J. (2015). Recovery for real (Issue July). Retrieved November 14, 2021, from Processes -recovery seems,purpose in life and Empowerment.

Fulford, D., Campellone, T., & Gard, D. E. (2018). Social motivation in schizophrenia: How research on basic reward processes informs and limits our understanding. Clinical Psychology Review, 63(May), 12–24.

Harris, M., Diminic, S., Marshall, C., Stockings, E., & Degenhardt, L. (2015). Estimating service demand for respite care among informal carers of people with psychological disabilities in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(3), 284–292.

Hielscher, E., Diminic, S., Kealton, J., Harris, M., Lee, Y. Y., & Whiteford, H. (2019). Hours of Care and Caring Tasks Performed by Australian Carers of Adults with Mental Illness: Results from an Online Survey. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(2), 279–295.

Horsfall, D., Paton, J., & Carrington, A. (2018). Experiencing recovery: findings from a qualitative study into mental illness, self and place. Journal of Mental Health, 27(4), 307–313.

Hung, C. F., Wang, L. J., Hsu, C. W., Huang, Y. C., Lin, P. Y., Lee, Y., Lee, I. K., Chou, W. J., & Lee, C. Te. (2021). Contemporary psychiatric intervention for chronic schizophrenia patients incarcerated in a religious asylum in Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 120(8), 1620–1626.

Jo, A., Kim, H., Lee, J. Y., Kim, J. M., Jeong, M. H., Chung, Y. C., Sohn, S. J., & Kim, S. W. (2020). The effects of patient personality traits and family cohesion on the treatment delay for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, March, 1–7.

Lahera, G., Gálvez, J. L., Sánchez, P., Martínez-Roig, M., Pérez-Fuster, J. V., García-Portilla, P., Herrera, B., & Roca, M. (2018). Functional recovery in patients with schizophrenia: Recommendations from a panel of experts. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1–11.

Li, J., Huang, Y. G., Ran, M. S., Fan, Y., Chen, W., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2018). Community-based comprehensive intervention for people with schizophrenia in Guangzhou, China: Effects on clinical symptoms, social functioning, internalized stigma and discrimination. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 34(36), 21–30.

Lim, C., Barrio, C., Hernandez, M., Barragán, A., & Brekke, J. S. (2017). Recovery From Schizophrenia in Community-Based Psychosocial Rehabilitation Settings: Rates and Predictors. Research on Social Work Practice, 27(5), 538–551.

Lysaker, P. H., Hillis, J. D., Zalzala, A. B., & Gagen, E. C. (2020). Reflection and Recovery from Psychosis during the Time of COVID-19: Adaptation in Psychotherapy in the United States. Clínica y Salud, 31(2), 99–103.

Narusson, D., & Wilken, J. P. (2019). Recovery-oriented support work: the perspective of people with lived experience. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 14(6), 457–468.

Nemoto, T., Uchino, T., Aikawa, S., Matsuo, S., Mamiya, N., Shibasaki, Y., Wada, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Katagiri, N., Tsujino, N., Usami, T., & Mizuno, M. (2020). Impact of changes in social anxiety on social functioning and quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia: A naturalistic longitudinal study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 131, 15–21.

Nemoto, T., Uchino, T., Aikawa, S., Saito, J., Matsumoto, H., Funatogawa, T., Yamaguchi, T., Katagiri, N., Tsujino, N., & Mizuno, M. (2019). Social anxiety and negative symptoms as the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia who show competence–performance discrepancy in social functioning. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 73(7), 394–399.

Nowak, I., Waszkiewicz, J., ?witaj, P., Sokó?-Szaw?owska, M., & Anczewska, M. (2017). A Qualitative Study of the Subjective Appraisal of Recovery Among People with Lived Experience of Schizophrenia in Poland. Psychiatric Quarterly, 88(3), 435–446.

Özdemir, ?., ?afak, Y., Örsel, S., Kahilo?ullari, A., & Karada?, H. (2017). Bir toplum ruh sa?l??? merkezinde ?izofreni hastalar?na uygulanan ruhsal-toplumsal uyumland?rma etkinli?inin ara?t?r?lmas?: Kontrollü çal??ma. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 18(5), 419–427.

Parma, I. P. G., & Handayani, N. N. L. (2019). Ngayah-Ngoopin: a Culture Based of Character Education. Proceeding. Retrieved November 14, 2021, from

Singla, N., Avasthi, A., & Grover, S. (2020). Recovery and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 102162.

Smith, R., Mcintosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., & Mcintosh, V. (2016). Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies Thriving After Trauma: Posttraumatic Growth Following the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. 20, 125–135. url:

Utami, G. A. J. O., & Dimyati, D. (2020). Ngayah: Communication Behaviour of Balinese Diaspora Jakarta Makna: Jurnal Kajian Komunikasi, Bahasa, dan Budaya. Retrieved August 13, 2021, from

Vanteemar S. Sreeraj, S., Uvais2, N. A., Mohanty3, S., Kumar3, S., & Department. (2019). Indian nursing students’ attitudes toward mental illness and persons with mental illness. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 195–201.

Wang, S. P., Wang, J. Der, Chang, J. H., Wu, B. J., Chern, J. S., & Wang, T. J. (2020). Frailty affects employment outcomes in patients with schizophrenia in noncompetitive employment: A 4-year longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Research, 222, 375–381.

Article Statistic

Abstract view : 252 times
Fulltext (Bahasa Indonesia) views : 83 times

Dimensions Metrics

How To Cite This :


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 I Dewa Gede Candra Dharma, Ahsan Ahsan, Retno Lestari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.