Incidences of Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers: Scoping Review

Nurul Hidayah(1*), Cesa Septiana Pratiwi(2)
(1) Universitas 'Aisyiyah Yogyakarta
(2) Midwifery Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta 55592
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i3.1067


Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs at the age of adolescents or less than 20 years. Postpartum depression is a condition of severe depression that occurs within 4-6 weeks after giving birth. Objective: To explore the scientific evidence of obstetrics related to the incidence of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers. Design: scoping review using the PRISMA-ScR checklist Method: The authors use the Arksey and O’Malley framework. The article search used three databases namely PubMed, Proquest, and Science Direct covering from January 2012 to 2022. An assessment tool was used. Review selection and characterization were carried out using critical appraisal using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) study tool. Results: Out of 809 potentially relevant articles, 7 articles were included. The research articles came from 5 different countries, and the methods were RCT, cross-sectional, and qualitative. The results are presented in three themes: the prevalence of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers, risk factors for postpartum depression in adolescent mothers, and the implementation of health services and obstacles in dealing with postpartum depression in adolescent mothers. Conclusion: Based on 7 articles reviewed, it was found that 32% of adolescent mothers have the possibility of postpartum depression that requires immediate action on early assessment, detection, and intervention. Factors that contribute to the development of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers include high social support, marital problems, pressure from parents, and economic problems. Continuing midwifery care, appropriate strategies, and preventive measures including regular screening for adolescent mothers and mental service providers are needed to reduce the risk of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers.


Abstrak: Latar Belakang: Kehamilan remaja merupakan kehamilan yang terjadi pada usia remaja kurang dari 20 tahun. Depresi postpartumadalah suatu kondisi depresi berat yang terjadi dalam 4-6 minggu setelah melahirkan. Tujuan: Menggali bukti ilmiah kebidanan terkait kejadian depresi postpartum pada ibu remaja. Desain: scoping review menggunakan ceklist PRISMA-ScR Metode: Penulis menggunakan kerangka Arksey dan O’Malley. Pencarian artikel menggunakan tiga databased PubMed, Proquest, Science Direct yang mencakup dari Januari 2012 sampai 2022. Alat penilaian digunakan. Seleksi review dan karakterisasi dilakukan dengan penilaian critical appraisal menggunakan studi Joanna Briggs Institude (JBI) tool. Hasil: Dari 809 artikel yang berpotensi relevan, 7 artikel dimasukan. Artikel penelitian tersebut berasal dari 5 Negara yang berbeda, dan metode RCT, Cross sectional dan kualitatif. Hasilnya disajikan dalam tiga tema : Prevalensi depresi postpartum pada ibu remaja, faktor resiko depresi postpartum pada ibu remaja dan pelaksanaan layanan kesehatan dan hambatan dalam menangani depresi postpartum pada ibu remaja. Kesimpulan: Berdasarkan 7 artikel yang dilakukan review, ditemukan bahwa bahwa 32% ibu remaja memiliki kemungkinan depresi postpartum yang memerlukan tindakan segera pada penilaian awal, deteksi dan intervensi. Faktor-faktor yang berkontribusi terhadap perkembangan depresi postpartum pada ibu remaja termasuk dukungan sosial yang tinggi, masalah perkawinan, tekanan dari orang tua dan masalah ekonomi. Asuhan kebidanan berkesinambungan, strategi dan tindakan pencegahan yang tepat termasuk skrining secara berkala untuk ibu remaja dan penyedia layanan mental diperlukan untuk mengurangi resiko depresi postpartum pada ibu remaja.


adolescent; mother; postpartum depression; scoping review


Abbaspoor, Z., Razmju, P. S., & Hekmat, K. (2016). Relation between quality of life and mental health in pregnant women with prior pregnancy loss. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 42(10), 1290–1296.

Agnafors, S., Bladh, M., Svedin, C. G., & Sydsjö, G. (2019). Mental health in young mothers, single mothers and their children. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 112.

Alam, M. M., Haque, T., Uddin, K. M. R., Ahmed, S., Islam, M. M., & Hawlader, M. D. H. (2021). The prevalence and determinants of postpartum depression (PPD) symptomatology among facility delivered mothers of Dhaka city. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 62, 102673.

Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory and Practice, 8(1), 19–32.

Aryal, K. K., Alvik, A., Thapa, N., Mehata, S., Roka, T., Thapa, P., Pandey, P., & Pedersen, B. S. (2018). Anxiety and Depression among Pregnant Women and Mothers of Children Under one Year in Sindupalchowk District. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 16(2), 195–204.

Atuhaire, C., & Cumber, S. N. (2018). Factors associated with postpartum depression among adolescents in Uganda. Pan African Medical Journal, 30, 1–7.

Brock, R. L., O’Hara, M. W., & Segre, L. S. (2017). Depression Treatment by Non-Mental-Health Providers: Incremental Evidence for the Effectiveness of Listening Visits. American Journal of Community Psychology, 59(1–2), 172–183.

Burgut, F. T., Bener, A., Ghuloum, S., & Sheikh, J. (2013). A study of postpartum depression and maternal risk factors in Qatar. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 34(2), 90–97.

Da Silva Tanganhito, D., Bick, D., & Chang, Y.-S. (2020). Breastfeeding experiences and perspectives among women with postnatal depression: A qualitative evidence synthesis. Women and Birth : Journal of the Australian College of Midwives, 33(3), 231–239.

Fatmawati, A., & Gartika, N. (2021). The Hubungan Kondisi Psikososial Dan Paritas Dengan Kejadian Depresi Postpartum Pada Ibu Remaja. Faletehan Health Journal, 8(01), 36–41.

Field, S., Abrahams, Z., & Honikman, S. (2020). Adolescent mothers: A qualitative study on barriers and facilitators to mental health in a low-resource setting in Cape Town, South Africa. African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 12(1), 1–9.

Gilson, K. J., & Lancaster, S. (2008). Childhood sexual abuse in pregnant and parenting adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(9), 869–877.

Hodgkinson, S., Beers, L., Southammakosane, C., & Lewin, A. (2014). Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents. Pediatrics, 133(1), 114–122.

Kimbui, E., Kuria, M., Yator, O., & Kumar, M. (2018). A cross-sectional study of depression with comorbid substance use dependency in pregnant adolescents from an informal settlement of Nairobi: drawing implications for treatment and prevention work. Annals of General Psychiatry, 17.

Kola, L., Bennett, I. M., Bhat, A., Ayinde, O. O., Oladeji, B. D., Abiona, D., Abdumalik, J., Faregh, N., Collins, P. Y., & Gureje, O. (2020). Stigma and utilization of treatment for adolescent perinatal depression in Ibadan Nigeria. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 20(1), 294.

Lockwood, C., Porritt, K., Munn, Z., Rittenmeyer, L., Salmond, S., Bjerrum, M., Loveday, H., Carrier, J., & Stannard, D. (2020). Systematic Reviews of Qualitative Evidence. JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis.

Mohammad, K. I., Sabbah, H., Aldalaykeh, M., ALBashtawy, M., Z. Abuobead, K., Creedy, D., & Gamble, J. (2021). Informative title: Effects of social support, parenting stress and self-efficacy on postpartum depression among adolescent mothers in Jordan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 30(23–24), 3456–3465.

Mohammad, K. I., Sabbah, H., Aldalaykeh, M., ALBashtawy, M., Z Abuobead, K., Creedy, D., & Gamble, J. (2021). Informative title: Effects of social support, parenting stress and self-efficacy on postpartum depression among adolescent mothers in Jordan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 30(23–24), 3456–3465.

Motegi, T., Watanabe, Y., Fukui, N., Ogawa, M., Hashijiri, K., Tsuboya, R., Sugai, T., Egawa, J., Araki, R., Haino, K., Yamaguchi, M., Nishijima, K., Enomoto, T., & Someya, T. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Primiparity are Negatively Associated with Mother-Infant Bonding in Japanese Mothers. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 16, 3117–3122.

Motzfeldt, I., Andreasen, S., Pedersen, A. L., & Pedersen, M. L. (2013). Prevalence of postpartum depression in Nuuk, Greenland - A cross-sectional study using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 72(SUPPL.1).

Mustaffa, M. S., Marappan, D. a/p, Abu, M. S., Khan, A., & Ahmad, R. (2014). Social Support during Pre-Natal and Post-Natal Stage: Influence on Maternal Depression and Mental Well-being. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, 417–422.

Nicolet, L., Moayedoddin, A., Miafo, J. D., Nzebou, D., Stoll, B., & Jeannot, E. (2021). Teenage mothers in Yaoundé, Cameroon—risk factors and prevalence of perinatal depression symptoms. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(18).

Niyonsenga, J., & Mutabaruka, J. (2021). Factors of postpartum depression among teen mothers in Rwanda: a cross- sectional study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 42(4), 356–360.

Nugraheni, herlina tri. (2017). Hubungan Kehamilan Usia Dini Dengan Kejadian Postpartum Blues Di Rsud Wonosari Tahun 2017. Poltekkes Kemenkes Yogyakarta.

Osok, J., Kigamwa, P., Huang, K.-Y., Grote, N., & Kumar, M. (2018). Adversities and mental health needs of pregnant adolescents in Kenya: identifying interpersonal, practical, and cultural barriers to care. BMC Women’s Health, 18(1), 96.

Phipps, M. G., Raker, C. A., Ware, C. F., & Zlotnick, C. (2013). Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in adolescent mothers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 208(3), 192.e1-192.e6.

Phipps, M. G., Ware, C. F., Stout, R. L., Raker, C. A., & Zlotnick, C. (2020). Reducing the Risk for Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 136(3), 613–621.

Ransing, R., Deshpande, S. N., Shete, S. R., Patil, I., Kukreti, P., Raghuveer, P., Mahadevaiah, M., Bhosale, N., Ramesh, V. O., Puri, M., & Bantwal, P. (2020). Assessing antenatal depression in primary care with the PHQ-2 and PHQ-9: Can It Be carried Out by auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM)? In Asian journal of psychiatry (Vol. 53, p. 102109).

Recto, P., & Champion, J. D. (2018). “We Don’t Want to be Judged”: Perceptions about Professional Help and Attitudes Towards Help-Seeking among Pregnant and Postpartum Mexican-American Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 42, 111–117.

Reid, V., & Meadows-Oliver, M. (2007). Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers: An Integrative Review of the Literature. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 21(5), 289–298.

Sakina, R., Khan, S. E., & Chaudhry, A. G. (2021). Stigma of postpartum depression: The role of lady health workers in health care-A qualitative study. Health Care for Women International, 1–10.

Santos, I. S., Munhoz, T. N., Blumenberg, C., Barcelos, R., Bortolotto, C. C., Matijasevich, A., Júnior, H. G. S., Marques Dos Santos, L., Correia, L. L., de Souza, M. R., Lira, P. I. C., Altafim, E., Marino, E., Macana, E. C., da Silva, R. S., Ohana, E. F., Fontes, M. T. A., & Victora, C. G. (2021). Post-partum depression: a cross-sectional study of women enrolled in a conditional cash transfer program in 30 Brazilian cities. Journal of Affective Disorders, 281, 510–516.

Shorey, S., Chan, S. W. C., Chong, Y. S., & He, H. G. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a postnatal psychoeducation programme on self-efficacy, social support and postnatal depression among primiparas. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(6), 1260–1273.

SOEP. (2009). Pengaruh intervensi psikoedukasi dalam mengatasi depresi.

Tzilos, G. K., Zlotnick, C., Raker, C., Kuo, C., & Phipps, M. G. (2012). Psychosocial factors associated with depression severity in pregnant adolescents. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 15(5), 397–401.

Venkatesh, K. K., Phipps, M. G., Triche, E. W., & Zlotnick, C. (2014). The relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among adolescent mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled prevention trial. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(6), 1532–1539.

Ya?mur, Y., & Ulukoca, N. (2010). Social support and postpartum depression in low-socioeconomic level postpartum women in Eastern Turkey. International Journal of Public Health, 55(6), 543–549.

Zlotnick, C., Tzilos, G., Miller, I., Seifer, R., & Stout, R. (2016). A randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in mothers on public assistance. Journal of Affective Disorders, 189, 263–268.

Article Statistic

Abstract view : 227 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) views : 55 times

Dimensions Metrics

How To Cite This :


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nurul Hidayah, Cesa Septiana Pratiwi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.