The Development of Yogurt Powder is High in Minerals, Rich in Antioxidants from Tempeh as a Synbiotic Drink

Nur Amala(1*), Anang M Legowo(2), Achmad Zulfa Juniarto(3), Etika Ratna Noer(4), Ahmad Ni’matullah Al-Baarri(5)
(1) Diponegoro University (UNDIP)
(2) Food Technology Department, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University
(3) Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University
(4) Science of Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University
(5) Food Technology Department, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i3.1162


The habit of consuming ultra-processed foods with high calories and low in nutrients increases the prevalence of obesity and mineral deficiencies, such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe). The purpose of this study was to determine the content of Ca, Mg, and Fe and antioxidant activity in synbiotic tempeh yogurt powder. This study consisted of three treatments, with the addition of tempeh as much as 0% (YT 0%), 50% (YT 50%), and 95% (YT 95%). The mineral content was analyzed by the permanganometric titration method, while antioxidant activity used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) method. The addition of tempeh in the manufacture of yogurt powder to the content of Ca, Mg, and Fe was significantly different in all treatment groups with a value of (p less than 0.05). The best treatment group with the highest mineral content in YT (0%) and YT (95%) with values of 895.53 + 0.04 and 858.83 + 0.01 mg (Ca), 78.83 + 0.01 and 72.20 + 0.00 mg (Mg) as well as 25.87 + 0.28 and 25.85 + 0.28 mg (Fe) were significantly different from YT (50%). However, the highest antioxidant content in the YT treatment (50%) was 78.12+0.10%. The addition of tempeh in the manufacture of yogurt powder is very significantly different from the value (p less than 0.001) of antioxidant content. The development of yogurt powder high in minerals and rich in antioxidants from tempeh as a synbiotic drink can be an alternative in the management of obesity.


Abstrak: Kebiasaan mengkonsumsi makanan ultra-olahan berkalori tinggi dan rendah zat gizi, meningkatkan prevalensi obesitas dan defisiensi mineral, seperti : kalsium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) dan zat besi (Fe) . Tujuan penelitian ini, untuk mengetahui kandungan Ca, Mg, dan Fe dan aktivitas antioksidan dalam bubuk yogurt tempe sinbiotik. Penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga perlakuan, dengan penambahan tempe sebanyak 0% (YT 0%), 50% (YT 50%) dan 95% (YT 95%). Kandungan mineral dianalisis dengan metode titrasi permanganometri, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH). Penambahan tempe dalam pembuatan bubuk yogurt terhadap kandungan Ca, Mg, dan Fe secara signifikan beda nyata pada semua kelompok perlakuan dengan nilai (p kurang dari 0,05). Kelompok perlakuan terbaik dengan kandungan mineral tertinggi pada YT (0%) dan YT (95%) dengan nilai 895.53 + 0.04 dan 858.83 + 0.01 mg (Ca), 78.83 + 0.01 dan 72.20 + 0.00 mg (Mg) serta 25.87 + 0.28 dan 25.85 + 0.28 mg(Fe) secara signifikan beda nyata dengan YT (50%). Namun, kandungan antioksidan tertinggi pada perlakuan YT (50%) sebesar 78.12+0.10%. Penambahan tempe dalam pembuatan bubuk yogurt sangat signifikan beda nyata dengan nilai (p kurang dari 0,001) terhadap kandungan antioksidan. Pengembangan bubuk yogurt tinggi mineral dan kaya antioksidan dari tempe sebagai minuman sinbiotik dapat menjadi alternatif dalam manajemen obesitas.


Antioxidant activity; minerals; synbiotics; tempeh; yogurt powder


Al-baarri, A. N., Legowo, A. M., Pramono, Y. B., Fazriyati, R. S., Pangestu, R. F., Azhar, H. N., Sarya, R. H., & Hapsari, M. C. (2016). Teknik Pembuatan Fruity Powder Yogurt (Issue June).

Al-Baarri, A. N., Ogawa, M., & Hayakawa, S. (2010). Scale-up studies on immobilization of lactoperoxidase using milk whey for producing antimicrobial agent. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, 35(3), 185–191.

Ariani, D., & Angwar, M. (2018). Produk Pangan Berbasis Tempe dan Aplikasinya. Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI).

Arkan, N. D., Setyawardani, T., & Rahardjo, A. H. D. (2022). Physicochemical and functional properties of yoghurt made of cow milk, colostrum, and milk-colostrum combination. Food Research, 6(1), 188–195.

Astawan, M., Mardhiyyah, Y. S., & Wijaya, C. H. (2018). Potential of Bioactive Components in Tempe for the Treatment of Obesity. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 13(2), 79–86.

Astawan, M., Wresdiyati, T., & Ichsan, M. (2016). Karakteristik fisikokimia tepung tempe kecambah kedelai. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 11(1).

Astrup, A., & Bügel, S. (2019). Overfed but undernourished: recognizing nutritional inadequacies/deficiencies in patients with overweight or obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 43(2), 219–232.

Ayuningtyas, C. E., Waluyo, W., & Susetyowati, S. (2018). Effect of Guava Juicy (Psidium guajava L.) Addition on Organoleptic Properties of Tempeh Yoghurt. Jurnal Dunia Gizi, 1(2), 112–118.

Bahaciu, G. V., NICOLAE, C. G., ?ULER, A. D., & SEGAL, R. (2018). Germinated and Lactic Fermented Soybean Seeds, a Natural Alternative for Healthy Bones. A Scientific Approach. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Food Science and Technology, 75(1), 8.

Bintari, S. H., & Parman, S. (2019). Antioxidant capacity and nutritional value of tempe yogurt. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1321(3).

de Souza de Azevedo, P. O., Mendonça, C. M. N., Moreno, A. C. R., Bueno, A. V. I., de Almeida, S. R. Y., Seibert, L., Converti, A., Watanabe, I. S., Gierus, M., & de Souza Oliveira, R. P. (2020). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude and freeze-dried bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–14.

Durazzo, A., Gabrielli, P., & Manzi, P. (2015). Qualitative study of functional groups and antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages compared to cow milk. Antioxidants, 4(3), 523–532.

Gadde, K. M., Martin, C. K., Berthoud, H. R., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2018). Obesity: Pathophysiology and Management. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(1), 69–84.

Gómez-Gallego, C., Gueimonde, M., & Salminen, S. (2018). The role of yogurt in food-based dietary guidelines. Nutrition Reviews, 76, 29–39.

Górska-Warsewicz, H., Rejman, K., Laskowski, W., & Czeczotko, M. (2019). Milk and dairy products and their nutritional contribution to the average polish diet. Nutrients, 11(8).

Hijová, E., Bertková, I., & Štofilová, J. (2019). Dietary fibre as prebiotics in nutrition. Central European Journal of Public Health, 27(3), 251–255.

Kadar, A. D., Astawan, M., Putri, S. P., & Fukusaki, E. (2020). Metabolomics-Based Study of the Effect of Raw Materials to the End Product of Tempe—An Indonesian Fermented Soybean. Metabolites, 10(9), 367.

Lee, S.-B., Cosmas, B., & Park, H.-D. (2020). The Antimutagenic and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Milk Supplemented with Cudrania tricuspidata Powder. Foods, 9(12), 1762.

Magdalena, S., Hogaputri, J.E., Yulandi, A., And Yogiara, Y. (2022). The addition of lactic acid bacteria in the soybean soaking process of tempeh. 6(June), 27–33.

Magee, P. J., & McCann, M. T. (2019). Micronutrient deficiencies: Current issues. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 78(2), 147–149.

Mahan, L. K., & Raymond, J. L. (2016). Krause’s food & the nutrition care process-e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Mohammadi-Sartang, M., Bellissimo, N., Totosy de Zepetnek, J. O., Brett, N. R., Mazloomi, S. M., Fararouie, M., Bedeltavana, A., Famouri, M., & Mazloom, Z. (2018). The effect of daily fortified yogurt consumption on weight loss in adults with metabolic syndrome: A 10-week randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 28(6), 565–574.

Moore, J. B., Horti, A., & Fielding, B. A. (2018). Evaluation of the nutrient content of yogurts: A comprehensive survey of yogurt products in the major UK supermarkets. BMJ Open, 8(8), 1–11.

Popkin, B. M., Corvalan, C., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2020). Dynamics of the double burden of malnutrition and the changing nutrition reality. The Lancet, 395(10217), 65–74.

Proestos, C. (2018). Superfoods: Recent data on their role in the prevention of diseases. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science, 6(3), 576–593.

Kemeterian Kesehatan RI (2018). Hasil utama riskesdas 2018. In Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

Rollán, G. C., Gerez, C. L., & Leblanc, J. G. (2019). Lactic fermentation as a strategy to improve the nutritional and functional values of pseudocereals. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6(September 2017).

Sahib, J., Miskiyah, N., & Kusuma, A. (2020). Penambahan Enkapsulan Dalam Proses Pembuatan Yoghurt Powder Probiotik Dengan Metode Spray Drying. Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, 16(2), 56.

Samtiya, M., Aluko, R. E., Puniya, A. K., & Dhewa, T. (2021). Enhancing micronutrients bioavailability through fermentation of plant-based foods: A concise review. Fermentation, 7(2), 1–13.

Slamet, S., & Bambang, H. (2002). Prosedur Analisa Untuk Bahan Makanan Dan Pertanian. Yogyakarta: Liberty.

Suratno, D. Y., Palupi, N. S., & Astawan, M. (2014). Pola Konsumsi Pangan Fungsional dan Formulasi Minuman Fungsional Instan Berbasis Antioksidan. Jurnal Mutu Pangan, 1(1), 56–64.

Uranga, R. M., & Keller, J. N. (2019). The complex interactions between obesity, metabolism and the brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13(MAY), 1–21.

Yulifianti, R., Muzaiyanah, S., & Utomo, J. S. (2018). Kedelai sebagai Bahan Pangan Kaya Isoflavon. Buletin Palawija, 16(2), 84–93.

Article Statistic

Abstract view : 21 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) views : 6 times

Dimensions Metrics

How To Cite This :


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Amala

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.