Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) to Reduce Death Anxiety (Thanatophobia) in HIV/AIDS Patients

Defia Roza(1), Nova Yanti(2*), Yosi Suryarinilsih(3), Alfitri Alfitri(4), Heppi Sasmita(5)
(1) Poltekkes Kemenkes Padang
(2) Poltekkes Kemenkes Padang
(3) Poltekkes Kemenkes Padang
(4) RSUP. dr. M. Djamil Padang
(5) Poltekkes Kemenkes Padang
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i4.1320

Abstract

HIV/AIDS patients have complex problems, both physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. The most common psychological problem is thanatophobia. Psychological problems that are not resolved will reduce the patient’s immune system that it can accelerate the emergence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on death anxiety. The design of this research is Mixed Method.  The research was conducted at the Taratak Jiwa Hati Foundation, Padang City with a sample of 15 people who were taken by purposive sampling technique. Data collection techniques with deep interviews and the implementation of CBT in groups of five sessions for five weeks. Univariate data analysis is a frequency distribution. The bivariate analysis uses paired sample t-test. The results obtained are the average level of death anxiety of HIV patients before administering CBT is 9.6 and after giving CBT is 6.4  and n value. The mean difference between before and after CBT was 3.2 with a standard deviation of 3.55. The results of the statistical test showed that there was a significant difference between the level of death anxiety in HIV patients before and after CBT (p = 0.0 04). It is hoped that nurses will provide counseling to HIV AIDS patients to take CBT when there is a problem. It is suggested to the next researcher to conduct other research on how to overcome the mental problems of HIV patients.

 

Abstrak: Pasien HIV/AIDS mempunyai  masalah  yang komplek ,baik secara fisik, psikologis , sosial dan Spiritual. Masalah psikologis yang paling sering ditemukan  adalah thanatophobia. Masalah psikologis yang tidak teratasi akan menurunkan  kekebalan tubuh pasien ,sehingga dapat mempercepat munculnya infeksi oportunistik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektifitas  Cognitive Behavior Therapy terhadap kecemasan kematian . Desain penelitian ini adalah Mixed Method. Penelitian  dilaksanakan  di Yayasan Taratak Jiwa Hati Kota Padang dengan  sampel sebanyak 15 orang yang diambil dengan teknik purposive sampling. Tehnik Pengumpulan data  dengan  deep interview,  pelaksanaan CBT secara berkelompok sebanyak lima sesi selama 5 minggu. Analisa data univariat adalah distribusi frekuensi, Analisa bivariat menggunakan paired sample t Test. Hasil penelitian yang didapatkan adalah  rata rata tingkat kecemasan kematian  pasien HIV sebelum pemberian CBT adalah 9,6 dan sesudah pemberian CBT adalah 6,4  dan  nilai mean perbedaan antara sebelum dan sesudah tindakan CBT adalah 3,2 dengan standar deviasi 3,55. Hasil Uji statistic didapatkan ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara tingkatan kecemasan kematian pasien HIV  sebelum dan sesudah tindakan CBT (p = 0,004).Diharapkan kepada perawat untuk memberikan penyuluhan kepada Pasien HIV AIDS untuk melakukan tindakan CBT setiap ada masalah . Disarankan kepada peneliti selanjutnya untuk melakukan penelitian lain tentang cara mengatasi masalah kejiwaan pasien HIV.

Keywords


CBT; HIV; AIDS; Thanatophobia

References


Argenis Guita Dea Nurhaesi, G., Diah Larasati, A., Titis Asrining Tyas, N., Nursing Science Program STIKES St. Elisabeth Semarang, M., Study Program, DS, & St. Elisabeth Semarang, Stik. (2021). Description of Anxiety Levels of People With Hiv/Aids (PLHA) in Arjuna's Peer Support Group (Kdsa) in Semarang City. Indonesian Journal of Nurses, 5 (3), 850–857.

Balasubramanian, C., Subramanian, M., Balasubramanian, S., Argawal, A., Raveendran, S., & Kaliaperumal, C. (2018). thanatophobia: Physician perspective of Dealing with Patient with Fear of Death. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 9 (January), 103–104. https://doi.org/10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM

Ballesio, A., Bacaro, V., Vacca, M., Chirico, A., Lucidi, F., Riemann, D., Baglioni, C., & Lombardo, C. (2021). Does cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia reduce repetitive negative thinking and sleep-related worry beliefs? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 55, 101378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101378

Cookson, MD, & Stirk, PMR (2019).??No Title No Title No Title . 4 , 178–186.

Damaiyanti, S., & Putri, M. (2021). Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Reducing Anxiety Levels in Victims of Violent Behavior (Bullying) in Elementary Schools. Journal of Health , 12 , 358–361.

Health, W. (2021). Global progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections, 2021. In World Health Organization (Vol. 53, Issue 9). https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240027077

Irawati, D., Faculty, S., Gadjah, PU, Yogyakarta, M., & Kumolohadi, R. (2011). Religious Cognitive Behavior Therapy To Reduce Anxiety Towards Death of Hiv/Aids Patients. Religious Cognitive Behavior Therapy To Reduce the Anxiety Towards Death of Hiv/Aids People. Journal of Interventional Psychology , 3 (2), 169–186.

Kalfas, M., Smakowski, A., Hirsch, C., Simiao, F., & Chalder, T. (2022). Generalized Worry in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Secondary Care. Behavior Therapy . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2022.01.004

Indonesian Ministry of Health. (2020). HIV AIDS Infodata. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia , 1–8. https://pusdatin.kemkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/infodatin/infodatin-2020-HIV.pdf

Manber, R., Bei, B., Simpson, N., Asarnow, L., Rangel, E., Sit, A., & Lyell, D. (2019). Cognitive behavioral therapy for prenatal insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology , 133 (5), 911–919. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003216

Menzies, RE, & Menzies, RG (2020). Death anxiety in the time of COVID-19: Theoretical explanations and clinical implications. Cognitive Behavior Therapist , 13 , 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X20000215

Menzies, RE, Sharpe, L., & Dar-Nimrod, I. (2019). The relationship between death anxiety and severity of mental illnesses. British Journal of Clinical Psychology , 58 (4), 452–467. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12229

Menzies, RE, Sharpe, L., Helgadóttir, FD, & Dar-Nimrod, I. (2021). Overcome Death Anxiety: The Development of an Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program for Fears of Death. Behavior Change , 38 (4), 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1017/bec.2021.14

Menzies, RE, & Veale, D. (2022). Free Yourself From Death Anxiety; A CBT Self Help Guide For a Fear of Death and Dying . Jessica Kingsley Publishers. https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=7TVTEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=cbt+and+thanatopobia&ots=MyRH_cedlx&sig=MnX_GKyuEHKGTOklaSUXDcLG-onec=&redir=falc=fsec=&redir_fsec=

Menzies, RE, & Whittle, LF (2022). Stoicism and death acceptance: integrating Stoic philosophy in cognitive behavior therapy for death anxiety. Discover Psychology , 2 (1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s44202-022-00023-9

Pandya, AK, & Kathuria, T. (2021). Death anxiety, religiosity and culture: Implications for therapeutic process and future research. Religions , 12 (1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12010061

Pardede, JA, Simanjuntak, GV, Febrian, J., Putra, A., Studi, P., University, N., & Mutiara, S. (2018). Reducing the anxiety level of HIV/aids patients through five-finger hypnosis therapy . 85–90.

Perihan, C., Burke, M., Bowman-Perrott, L., Bicer, A., Gallup, J., Thompson, J., & Sallese, M. (2020). Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Reducing Anxiety in Children with High Functioning ASD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders , 50 (6), 1958–1972. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-03949-7

Rahman, A., Kirana, W., Anggraini, R., Panglima, J., & Pontianak, K. (2019). Anxiety Facing Death of HIV/AIDS Patients in RSUD dr. Abdul Aziz . 18–32.

Ramadhan, D. (2020). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy To Reduce Anxiety in Fibroadenoma Mammae Patient. Journal of Psychiatry Psychology and Behavioral Research , 1 , 6–9. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp

Roza, D., Alfitri, & Wira, A. (2021). Spiritual Needs of HIV Patients (Guepedia, Ed.). Guepedia.

Sasmita, H., Yanti, N., Hendri, K., Tasman, T., Astuti, VW, & Fadriyanti, Y. (2021). Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Dhikr on Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Earthquake Victims. Journal of Aisyah: Journal of Health Sciences , 6 (2), 385–392. https://doi.org/10.30604/jika.v6i2.494

Sinoff, G. (2017). Thanatophobia (death anxiety) in the elderly: The problem of the child's inability to assess their own parent's death anxiety state. Frontiers in Medicine , 4 (FEB), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2017.00011

UNAIDS. (2021). Global HIV Statistics, 2021. In UNAIDS (Vol. 34, Issue 1). https://doi.org/10.36721/PJPS.2021.34.1.SUP.275-281.1

Wahidah, FR, & Adam, P. (2019). Cognitive Behavior Therapy to Change Negative Thoughts and Anxiety in Adolescents. Indigenous: Scientific Journal of Psychology , 3 (2), 57–69. https://doi.org/10.23917/indigenous.v3i2.6826

WHO (World Health Organization). (2020). Global HIV epidemic. In Weekly releases (1997–2007) (Vol. 2, Issue 26). https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.02.26.01196-en

Widianti, E. (2018). Level of Anxiety on Death in PLWHA. Sudirman Journal of Nursing , 12 (3), 199. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.jks.2017.12.3.758

Zhang, X., Yin, C., Tian, W., Lu, D., & Yang, X. (2020). Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Clinical Respiratory Journal , 14 (10), 891–900. https://doi.org/10.1111/crj.13226


Article Statistic

Abstract view : 25 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) views : 19 times

Dimensions Metrics

How To Cite This :

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Defia Roza, Nova Yanti, Yosi Suryarinilsih, Alfitri Alfitri, Heppi Sasmita

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.