The Environmental Factors and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Pneumonia Incidence in Indonesia

Asep Hermawan(1*)
(1) Pusat Riset Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Gizi, BRIN
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i4.1329


Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children worldwide, including in Indonesia. Various factors can be considered individually or all at once to determine the incidence of pneumonia. This paper aims to investigate environmental and sociodemographic factors that affect the incidence of pneumonia in Indonesia using data from the 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas). The study design was cross-sectional, using Riskesdas 2018 as data sources with individual analysis units. The research sample was 91,894 respondents with a population of children under five from all over Indonesia. The data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression with an alpha of 5%. This study found that regional (Nusatenggara) AOR 2.1 (95% CI AOR 1.76-2.5), housewife education (primary education) 1.92 (95% CI AOR 1.34-2.76), age group of the children (24-59 months) AOR 1.61 (95% CI AOR 1.35-1.92), and the lack of ventilation in primary bedroom AOR 1.18 (95% CI AOR 1.01-1.36), after controlling for expenditure per capita. Children under five years old are more likely to get pneumonia due to variables that behavioral modifications and health promotion can avoid. Examining the variations in sociodemographic variables and particular places can help with the best interventions.


Abstrak: Pneumonia adalah penyebab utama kematian pada anak di seluruh dunia, termasuk di Indonesia. Berbagai faktor dapat dipertimbangkan secara individual atau kolektif untuk menentukan kejadian pneumonia. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor lingkungan dan sosio-demografi yang mempengaruhi kejadian pneumonia di Indonesia dengan menggunakan data dari Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2018. Desain studi adalah potong lintang dengan menggunakan sumber data Riskesdas 2018 dengan unit analisis individu. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 91.894 responden dengan populasi adalah anak balita dari seluruh Indonesia. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi logistik berganda dengan alpha sebesar 5%. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa regional (Nusatenggara) AOR 2,1 (95% CI AOR 1,76-2,5), pendidikan ibu rumah tangga (pendidikan dasar) 1,92 (95% CI AOR 1,34-2,76), kelompok usia anak-anak (24-59 bulan) AOR 1,61 (95% CI AOR 1,35-1,92), dan kurangnya ventilasi di kamar tidur utama AOR 1,18 (95% CI AOR 1,01-1,36) adalah factor yang berpengaruh terhadap kejadian pneumonia, setelah mengendalikan pengeluaran per kapita. Anak-anak di bawah lima tahun lebih mungkin terkena pneumonia karena variabel yang dapat dihindari oleh modifikasi perilaku dan promosi kesehatan. Pemahaman variasi dalam variabel sosiodemografi dan wilayah tertentu dapat membantu dengan intervensi yang lebih tepat.


pneumonia; under five of age; toddler; home environment; sociodemographic


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