Effectiveness of Zinc Suplementation on Linear Growth of Stunting Toddlers in Semarang City

Siti Endah Wahyuningsih(1), Ani Margawati(2*), Maria Mexitalia(3), Etika Ratna Noer(4), Ahmad Syauqy(5)
(1) Department of Nutrition Science Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University
(2) Diponegoro University (UNDIP)
(3) Diponegoro University (UNDIP)
(4) Diponegoro University (UNDIP)
(5) Diponegoro University (UNDIP)
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v7i4.1482

Abstract

Toddlers with nutritional deficiencies risk experiencing linear growth disorders, resulting in stunting. The provision of zinc supplementation is considered to increase linear growth in children. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of stunting toddlers in the city of Semarang. Health workers and examination enumerators conducted blood sampling, serum zinc levels, and anthropometry. The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental research design with a pretest-posttest study design. Supplementation using zinc sulfate syrup containing elemental zinc at 10 mg/day (n=24) and 5 mg/day (n=23) for 12 weeks, given once a day. The data obtained before and after supplementation were serum zinc levels, weight, and height. The study was conducted from November 2020 to February 2021. The results showed a significant difference in the increase in serum zinc levels of 33.92±36.07 g/dL (10 mg dose) and 12.91±25.9 g/dL (5 mg dose). Analysis of nutritional status before and after supplementation showed significant differences in HAZ, WAZ, and WHZ z-score in the group with 10 mg zinc supplementation with p values 0.004, 0.000, and 0.000, respectively (p less than 0.05). While in the group with a 5 mg zinc supplementation dose, nutritional status parameters showed significant results in HAZ and WAZ, respectively 0.000 and 0.011 (p less than 0.05), while nutritional status WHZ was not significant at 0.100 (p more than 0.05). While in the group with a 5 mg zinc supplementation dose, nutritional status parameters showed significant results in HAZ and WAZ, respectively 0.000 and 0.011 (p less than 0.05), while nutritional status WHZ was not significant at 0.100 (p more than 0.05). The effectiveness of supplementation experienced by the 10 mg supplementation dose was 0.000, while the 5 mg supplementation value was 0.026 (p less than 0.05). This research shows that zinc supplementation can increase serum zinc levels and the nutritional status of children under five. The increase is more effective in the 10 mg supplementation dose group.

 

Abstrak: Balita dengan defisiensi zat gizi dapat berisiko mengalami gangguan pertumbuhan linear sehingga mengakibatkan stunting. Pemberian suplementasi zinc dinilai dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan linear pada anak. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas suplementasi zinc terhadap pertumbuhan linear balita stunting di Kota Semarang. Pengambilan sampel darah, pengukuran kadar zinc serum dan antropometri dilakukan oleh tenaga kesehatan dan enumerator terlatih. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah desain penelitian quasy experimental dengan rancangan pretest posttest study design. Suplementasi menggunakan sirup zinc sulfat yang berisi zinc elemental dengan dosis10 mg/hari (n=24) dan dosis 5 mg/hari(n=23) selama 12 minggu, diberikan sehari 1 kali. Data yang diperoleh sebelum dan sesudah suplementasi yaitu kadar zinc serum, berat badan dan tinggi badan. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan November 2020-Februari 2021. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan signifikan adanya perbedaan kenaikan kadar zinc serum 33,92±36,07 ?g/dL (dosis 10 mg) dan 12,91±25,9 ?g/dL (dosis 5 mg). Hasil analisis pada status gizi sebelum dan sesudah suplementasi menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan pada TB/U, BB/U dan BB/TB pada kelompok dengan suplementasi zinc 10 mg masing-masing 0,004; 0,000 dan 0,000 (p kurang dari 0,05). Sedangkan pada kelompok dengan dosis suplementasi zinc 5 mg, status gizi menunjukkan hasil signifikan pada TB/U dan BB/U, masing-masing 0,000 dan 0,011 (p kurang dari 0,05) sedangkan status gizi BB/TB tidak signifikan 0,100(p lebih dari 0,05). Efektifitas suplementasi dialami dosis suplementasi 10 mg dengan nilai 0,000 sedangkan pada suplementasi dosis 5 mg nilai 0,026 (p kurang dari 0,05). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi zinc mampu meningkatkan kadar zinc serum dan status gizi balita, peningkatan lebih efektif dialami oleh kelompok dosis suplementasi 10 mg.

Keywords


kesehatan masyarakat; gizi kesehatan; kesehatan anak

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