Nurse’s Experience of Psychological Changes in Caring for Covid-19 Patients During Pandemic

Wahyi Sholehah Erdah Suswati(1*), Asti Melani Astari(2), Retno Lestari(3)
(1) Universitas dr. Soebandi (UDS)
(2) Universitas Brawijaya
(3) Universitas Brawijaya
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.30604/jika.v8i1.1551

Abstract

The pandemic of COVID-19 had a psychological impact on health workers especially for nurses. They experienced anxiety, insomnia, depression and phobias during treating COVID-19 patients. The study aimed to explore the psychological experience of nurses in caring for COVID-19 patients during pandemic. The interpretive phenomenological approach was applied to collected data via zoom meeting cloud. 10 nurses were recruited purposively based on the spesific criteria. The findings were analyzed using the interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) technique and revealed 9 categories include: 1) accept the task half-heartedly, 2) fear of the impact of a given task, 3) depressed when first encountering the situation, 4) always have to be careful and disciplined with work safety protocols, 5) faith and confidence in God will give strength, 6) able to control feelings and seek help, 7) get moral and material support, 8) caring grows when dealing with patients being treated, and 9) sincerely enjoying work as part of a nurse's duties. The survival and growth in the stressful situations is the major theme of the study. The organizational institution should give support to the frontline nurses by providing psychological screening examination, regular monitoring, intervention training to improve nurses ability in psychological care independently.


Abstrak: Pandemi COVID-19 mengakibatkan dampak psikologis bagi tenaga kesehatan khususnya perawat. Perawat mengalami kecemasan, insomnia, depresi, dan phobia selama merawat pasien COVID-19. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengeksplorasi pengalaman psikologis perawat selama merawat pasien COVID-19. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan fenomenologi interpretif melalui wawancara mendalam kepada 10 partisipan yang dipilih secara purposive sesuai kriteria tertentu. Pengambilan data melalui zoom meeting cloud. Analisis data menggunakan teknik interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) menghasilkan 9 tema antara lain: 1) menerima tugas dengan setengah hati; 2) ketakutan terhadap dampak dari tugas yang dijalankan; 3) tertekan ketika pertama kali menghadapi situasinya; 4) mengharuskan diri selalu berhati-hati dan disiplin protokol keselamatan kerja; 5) kepercayaan dan keyakinan kepada Tuhan memberi kekuatan; 6) berupaya mengendalikan perasaan dan mencari bantuan; dan 7) mendapatkan dukungan moril maupun materiil; 8) kepedulian tumbuh saat menghadapi pasien yang dirawat; dan 9) ikhlas menikmati pekerjaan sebagai bagian dari tugas seorang perawat. Terdapat pertumbuhan aspek psikologis dari negatif menjadi positif pada diri perawat seiring berjalannya waktu. Perawat bertahan dan bertumbuh dalam situasi penuh tekanan menjadi tema besar penelitian ini. Rumah sakit perlu mendukung perawat dengan cara melakukan pemeriksaan dan pemantauan psikologis rutin, menyediakan pelatihan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan perawat dalam perawatan psikologis secara mandiri, serta menyediakan dukungan psikologis profesional jika diperlukan.

Keywords


psychological experience; nurse; pandemic

References


Algunmeeyn, A., El-Dahiyat, F., Altakhineh, M. M., Azab, M., & Babar, Z.-U.-D. (2020). Understanding the factors influencing healthcare providers’ burnout during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Jordanian hospitals. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 13(1), 53. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00262-y

Babore, A., Lombardi, L., Viceconti, M. L., Pignataro, S., Marino, V., Crudele, M., … Trumello, C. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-2019 pandemic: Perceived stress and coping strategies among healthcare professionals. Psychiatry Research, 293(July), 113366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113366

Benight, C. C., & Harper, M. L. (2002). Coping self-efficacy perceptions as a mediator between acute stress response and long-term distress following natural disasters. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(3), 177–186. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015295025950

Blais. (2013). Praktik keperawatan profesional. Jakarta: EGC.

Cai, H., Tu, B., Ma, J., Chen, L., Fu, L., Jiang, Y., & Zhuang, Q. (2020). Psychological impact and coping strategies of frontline medical staff in Hunan between January and March 2020 during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) in Hubei, China. Medical Science Monitor, 26, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.924171

Chow, S. K., Francis, B., Ng, Y. H., Naim, N., Beh, H. C., Ariffin, M. A. A., … Sulaiman, A. H. (2021). Religious Coping, Depression and Anxiety among Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Malaysian Perspective. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1), 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010079

Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H., Mercer, S., … Jarvis, C. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modelling study. The Lancet Global Health, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30264-3

Costa, R. M. (2017). Denial (Defense Mechanism) BT - Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford, Eds.). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1373-1

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Retrieved from http://library1.nida.ac.th/termpaper6/sd/2554/19755.pdf

Galehdar, N., Kamran, A., Toulabi, T., & Heydari, H. (2020). Exploring nurses’ experiences of psychological distress during care of patients with COVID-19: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 489. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02898-1

Garrosa, E., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Rodríguez-Muñoz, A., & Rodríguez-Carvajal, R. (2011). Role stress and personal resources in nursing: a cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(4), 479–489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.08.004

Gonzalo, R. M., Ana, R. G., Patricia, C. A., Laura, A. L., Nathalia, G. T., Luis, C., … Benedicto, C. F. (2021). Short-term emotional impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Spaniard health workers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 278, 390–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.079

Harper, C. A., Satchell, L. P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R. D. (2020). Functional Fear Predicts Public Health Compliance in the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00281-5

He, J., Liu, L., Chen, X., Qi, B., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., & Bai, J. (2021). The experiences of nurses infected with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A qualitative study. Journal of Nursing Management, (January), 1180–1188. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13256

Hu, D., Kong, Y., Li, W., Han, Q., Zhang, X., Zhu, L. X., … Zhu, J. (2020). Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. EClinicalMedicine, 24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100424

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5

Juan, Y., Yuanyuan, C., Qiuxiang, Y., Cong, L., Xiaofeng, L., Yundong, Z., … Yujie, L. (2020). Psychological distress surveillance and related impact analysis of hospital staff during the COVID-19 epidemic in Chongqing, China. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 103, 152198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152198

Kackin, O., Ciydem, E., Aci, O. S., & Kutlu, F. Y. (2020). Experiences and psychosocial problems of nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Turkey: A qualitative study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020942788

Kang, L., Ma, S., Chen, M., Yang, J., Wang, Y., Li, R., … Liu, Z. (2020). Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross-sectional study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 11–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.028

Khalid, I., Khalid, T. J., Qabajah, M. R., Barnard, A. G., & Qushmaq, I. A. (2016). Healthcare Workers Emotions, Perceived Stressors and Coping Strategies During a MERS-CoV Outbreak. Clinical Medicine & Research, 14(1), 7–14. https://doi.org/10.3121/cmr.2016.1303

Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and health: the research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 278730. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/278730

Komite Penanganan COVID-19 dan Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. (2020). Peta Sebaran COVID-19. Retrieved October 8, 2020, from https://covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran-covid19

Kozlowska, K., Walker, P., McLean, L., & Carrive, P. (2015). Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 23(4). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/hrpjournal/Fulltext/2015/07000/Fear_and_the_Defense_Cascade__Clinical.3.aspx

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., … Hu, S. (2020). Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e203976. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Lee, J. Y., Hong, J. H., & Park, E. Y. (2020). Beyond the fear: Nurses’ experiences caring for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome: A phenomenological study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(17–18), 3349–3362. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15366

Lee, S. A. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1748481

Lippi, G., Sanchis-Gomar, F., & Henry, B. M. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): the portrait of a perfect storm. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8(7), 497. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.03.157

Liu, Y., Chen, H., Zhang, N., Wang, X., Fan, Q., Zhang, Y., … Li, M. (2020). Anxiety and depression symptoms of medical staff under COVID-19 epidemic in China. Journal of Affective Disorders, 278(September 2020), 144–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.004

MacDonald, D. K. (2016). Crisis theory and types of crisis. Retrieved March 6, 2021, from http://dustinkmacdonald.com/crisis-theory-types-crisis/

Maechler, F., Gertler, M., Hermes, J., van Loon, W., Schwab, F., Piening, B., … Seybold, J. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infections at a testing site in Berlin, Germany, March and April 2020—a cross-sectional study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, (April). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.08.017

Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., … Huang, H. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(5), 1002–1009. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13014

Patton, C. M. (2020). Caring for COVID-19 Patients : Nurses ’ Mental and. 12(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5580/IJHCA.55274

Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur. (2020). Peta sebaran COVID-19 Jatim. Retrieved October 8, 2020, from http://infocovid19.jatimprov.go.id/#peta

Peristianto, S. V. (2021). Religiusitas Tenaga Medis dalam Persiapan New Normal Setelah Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Psisula: Prosiding Berkala Psikologi, 2(November), 388–400.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2018). Essentials of nursing research : appraising evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Retrieved from http://library1.nida.ac.th/termpaper6/sd/2554/19755.pdf

Que, J., Shi, L., Deng, J., Liu, J., Zhang, L., Wu, S., … Lu, L. (2020). Psychological impact of the covid-19 pandemic on healthcare workers: A cross-sectional study in China. General Psychiatry, 33(3), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100259

Roberts, A. R., & Ottens, A. J. (2005). The seven-stage crisis intervention model: A road map to goal attainment, problem solving, and crisis resolution. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 5(4), 329–339. https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/mhi030

Roman, N. V, Mthembu, T. G., & Hoosen, M. (2020). Spiritual care - “A deeper immunity” - A response to Covid-19 pandemic. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 12(1), e1–e3. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2456

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Pacitti, F., Di Lorenzo, G., Di Marco, A., Siracusano, A., & Rossi, A. (2020). Mental Health Outcomes Among Frontline and Second-Line Health Care Workers DRossi, R., Socci, V., Pacitti, F., Di Lorenzo, G., Di Marco, A., Siracusano, A., & Rossi, A. (2020). Mental Health Outcomes Among Frontline and Second-Line Health Care Workers Dur. JAMA Network Open, 3(5), e2010185–e2010185. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10185

?ahin, M. K., Aker, S., ?ahin, G., & Karabekiro?lu, A. (2020). Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, Distress and Insomnia and Related Factors in Healthcare Workers During COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. Journal of Community Health, (0123456789). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00921-w

Salman, M., Raza, M. H., Ul Mustafa, Z., Khan, T. M., Asif, N., Tahir, H., … Hussain, K. (2020). The psychological effects of COVID-19 on frontline healthcare workers and how they are coping: a web-based, cross-sectional study from Pakistan. MedRxiv, 2020.06.03.20119867. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.03.20119867

Shen X, Zou X, Zhong X, Yan J, & Li L. (2020). Psychological stress of ICU nurses in the time of COVID-19.Critical care[revista en internet] 2020 [acceso 09 de junio del 2020]; 24(1): 200. Critical Care, 2–4. Retrieved from https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13054-020-02926-2

Sun, N., Wei, L., Shi, S., Jiao, D., Song, R., Ma Msc, L., … Wang, H. (2020). Qualitative study: Experienced of caregivers during Covid19. American Journal of Infection Control, 48(January), 592–298.

Vindrola-Padros, C., Andrews, L., Dowrick, A., Djellouli, N., Fillmore, H., Bautista Gonzalez, E., … Johnson, G. (2020). Perceptions and experiences of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. BMJ Open, 10(11), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040503

Wa?kowicz, P., Szyli?ska, A., & Rotter, I. (2020). Assessment of mental health factors among health professionals depending on their contact with covid-19 patients. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(16), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165849

WHO. (2020). Global Situation. Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/

WHO. (2021). COVID-19 : Occupational health and safety for health workers. Who, (February), 1–16. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-HCW_advice-2021.1

Wu, Z., & McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA, 323(13), 1239–1242. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2648

Xing, J., Sun, N., Xu, J., Geng, S., & Li, Y. (2020). Study of the mental health status of medical personnel dealing with new coronavirus pneumonia. PLoS ONE, 15(5), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233145

Yustisia Nova, Anggriani Tuti U., A. (2020). Adaptasi perilaku caring perawat pada pasien COVID-19 di ruang isolasi. Adaptasi Perilaku Caring Perawat Pada Pasien COVID-19 Di Ruang Isolasi, 08, 117–127.

Zhai, P., Ding, Y., Wu, X., Long, J., Zhong, Y., & Li, Y. (2020). The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(5), 105955. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105955

Zhang, W.-R., Wang, K., Yin, L., Zhao, W.-F., Xue, Q., Peng, M., … Wang, H.-X. (2020). Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems of Medical Health Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 89(4), 242–250. https://doi.org/10.1159/000507639


Article Statistic

Abstract view : 185 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) views : 77 times

Dimensions Metrics

How To Cite This :

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.