Amoxicylin-Klavulanate and Cefadroxyl Resistance Toward Staphylococcus Aureus Isolate from Children's Nose Mucosa



Dewi Sartika Siagian(1), May Valzon(2), Riski Agusmai(3Mail),
(1) Universitas Abdurrab, Indonesia
(2) Universitas Abdurrab, Indonesia
(3) Universitas Abdurrab, Indonesia

Mail Corresponding Author


DOI : https://doi.org/10.30604/jika.v6i1.433

Full Text:    Language : En
Submitted : 2021-01-23
Published : 2021-03-22

Abstract


Developing countries play an important role in the emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics because they are home to the majority of the world's population. Increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics has been widely reported, one of which is Staphylococcus Aureus against various ?-lactam antibiotics. The high level of resistance to amoxicillin causes the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate to start increasing in the community even without culture data or epidemiological data. Antibiotics that are often used in the treatment of fever complaints in children in Indonesia are cefadroxil, followed by cefixime and amoxicillin. This research objective was to analyze the antibiotic resistance of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefadroxil against Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria in children. This research used Staphylococcus Aureus samples from the nasal mucosa of healthy children. Cultures were tested with an antibiotic disk of amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefadroxil and cefoxitin using the Kirby-Bauer diffusion disk method to assess the zone of inhibition of each antibiotic. The diameter of the growth inhibition zone of Staphylococcus aureus was different between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefadroxil. Amoxicillin-clavulanate has experienced resistance in 5 of the 6 samples tested while cefadroxil is sensitive to the 6 tested samples so it can be concluded that amoxicillin-clavulanate has been resistant and cefadroxil is still sensitive to Staphylococcus Aureus.

 

 

Abstrak: Negara berkembang memegang peranan penting dalam kemunculan resistensi bakteri terhadap antibiotik karena merupakan tempat tinggal bagi mayoritas penduduk dunia. Peningkatan resistensi bakteri terhadap antibiotik telah banyak dilaporkan, salah satunya Staphylococcus aureus terhadap berbagai antibiotik golongan ?-laktam. Tingginya tingkat resistensi terhadap amoksisilin menyebabkan penggunaan amoksisilin-klavulanat mulai meningkat di masyarakat walaupun tanpa data kultur atau data epidemiologi. Antibiotik yang sering digunakan dalam terapi keluhan demam pada anak di Indonesia adalah sefadroksil , diikuti oleh sefiksim  dan amoxicillin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis resistensi antibiotik amoksisilin-klavulanat dan sefadroksil terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus pada anak. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel Staphylococcus aureus hasil kultur dari mukosa hidung anak sehat. Kultur di uji dengan disk antibiotik amoksisilin-klavulanat, sefadroksil  dan cefoxitin dengan metode disk difusi Kirby-bauer untuk menilai zona hambat masing-masing antibiotik. Diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus berbeda  antara amoksisilin-klavulanat dengan sefadroksil. Amoksisilin-klavulanat telah mengalami resistensi pada 5 dari 6 sampel yang diuji sedangakn sefadroksil  sensitif terhadap 6 sampel yang diuji sehingga dapat disimpulakn bahwa amoksisilin-klavulanat telah resisten dan sefadroksil  masih sensitif terhadap Staphylococcus aureus.


Keywords


Staphylococcus aureus; amoxicillin-clavulanat; cefadroxil; cefoxitin

References


(IMS), I. for H. I. (n.d.). The Use of Medicines in the United States. http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/news/2013/pdf-links/IHII_Medicines_in_U.S_Report_2011-1.pdf

Pedoman Umum Penggunaan Antibiotik, (2011). http://iai.id/library/pelayanan/permenkes-no-2406-thn-2016-ttg-pedoman-umum-penggunaan-antibiotik

Alburyhi, M. M., Siaf, A. A., & Noman, M. A. (2013). Stability study of six brands of amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanic acid oral suspension present in Yemen markets. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 5(5), 293–296.

Arya, S. C., Agarwal, N., & Agarwal, S. (2006). Comparison of two amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant profiles employing two types of assay disks: A pilot study in 50 isolates from a tertiary care hospital in India. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental, 67(2), 151–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.curtheres.2006.04.003

B, B. (2012). Amoxycillin/Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Infected Oral Cavity. Indian J.L.Sci, 2(1), 37–40. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322036795_An_Epidemiological_Study_of_Bacterial_Isolates_from_Oral_Cavity_of_Medical_Students_and_its_Antimicrobial_Resistance_Pattern

Centers for Disease Dynamics, E. and P. (CDDEP). (2015). The State of World’s Antibiotics. CDDEP: Washington, D.C. https://cddep.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/swa_edits_9.16.pdf

David, M. Z., & Daum, R. S. (2010). Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 23(3), 616–687. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00081-09

Duran N, Ozer B, Duran GG, Onlen Y, D. C. (2012). Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Susceptibility Patterns in Staphylococci. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 135:389-39.

Endriani, R., Andrini, F., & Alfina, D. (2012). Pola Resistensi Bakteri Penyebab Infeksi Saluran Kemih (ISK) Terhadap Antibakteri di Pekanbaru. Jurnal Natur Indonesia, 12(2), 130. https://doi.org/10.31258/jnat.12.2.130-135

Gaetti-Jardim EC, Marqueti AC, Faverani LP, G.-J. J. E. (2010). Antimicrobial Resistance of Aerobes and Facultative Anaerobes Isolated from The Oral Cavity. Journal of Applied Oral Science., 18(6), 551–559.

Heidi Frynkewicz, Hannah Feezle, M. R. (2012). Thermostability Determination of Antibiotics at High Temperatures by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Ncur, 3–7. http://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2012/article/view/138

Huang, C.-J. C. dan Y.-C. (2014). New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia. Clin Microbiol Infect, 20(7), 605–623. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24888414/

Jana M.Swenson, David Lonsway, Sigrid McAllister, Angela Thompson, Laura Jevitt, Wenming Zhu, J. B. P. (2007). Detection of mecA-mediated resistance using reference and commercial testing methods in a collection of Staphylococcus aureus expressing borderline oxacillin MICs. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 58(1), 33–39. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0732889306004287?via%3Dihub

K Rajaduraipandi, K R Mani, K Panneerselvam, M Mani, M Bhaskar, P. M. (2006). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a multicentre study. Indian J Med Microbiol, 24(1), 34–38. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16505553/

Lahsoune, M., Boutayeb, H., Zerouali, K., Belabbes, H., & El Mdaghri, N. (2013). Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States. Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 37(12), 828–831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2007.05.006

Llor, C., & Bjerrum, L. (2014). Antimicrobial resistance: Risk associated with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 5(6), 229–241. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098614554919

Lorensia, A., Surabaya, U., & Wijaya, R. (2012). DRUG INTERACTION ANALYSIS IN HOSPITALIZED AND OUTPATIENT CARE OF ASTHMA PATIENT IN ADI HUSADA UNDAAN WETAN HOSPITAL , SURABAYA , INDONESIA DRUG INTERACTION ANALYSIS IN HOSPITALIZED AND OUTPATIENT. November.

Nurmala, Virgiandhy IGN, Andriani, L. D. (2015). Resistensi dan Sensitivitas Bakteri Terhadap Antibiotik di RSU dr. Soedarso Pontianak Tahun 2011-2013. E-Jurnal Kedokteran Indonesia., 3(1), 21-28.

Okeke, A. de J. S. K. B. F. A.-C.-R. H. K. N. (2010). Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-0-387-89370-9

Padian, N. (2008). Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice, Second Edition: By Kenrad E. Nelson and Carolyn F. Masters Williams. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(8), 1014–1015. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwn045

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Permenkes) Nomor 2406. (n.d.). Pedoman Umum Penggunaan Antibiotik.

R Kumar, M. K. dan U. K. (2013). Antimicrobials Sensitivity and Resistance Pattern of Bacterial Isolates at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Jharkhand, India. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4(1), 1248–1255.

Refdanita, Maksum R, Nurgani A, E. P. (2004). Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Ketidaksesuaian Penggunaan Antibiotik Dengan Uji Kepekaan di Ruang Intensif Rumah Sakit Fatmawati Jakarta Tahun 2001-2002. Jurnal Universitas Indonesia, 8(1), 21–26.

Refdanita, Maksum R, Nurgani A, E. P. (2010). MRSA-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/consumers/personal_home_5_890113708.pdf

RI, B. P. dan P. K. K. (2013). riset kesehatan dasar (RISKESDAS).

Sheldon L. Kaplan, Kristina G. Hulten, Blanca E. Gonzalez, Wendy A. Hammerman, Linda Lamberth, James Versalovic and Edward O. Mason, J. (2005). Three-Year Surveillance of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Children. Clinical Infectious Disease., 40(12), 1785–1791. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4484297?seq=1

Thakuria, B., & Lahon, K. (2013). The beta lactam antibiotics as an empirical therapy in a developing country: An update on their current status and recommendations to counter the resistance against them. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 7(6), 1207–1214. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/5239.3052

Thompson Coon, J. (2010). Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. In Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies (Vol. 7, Issue 2). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7166.2002.tb05480.x

Togoobaatar, G., Ikeda, N., Ali, M., Sonomjamts, M., Dashdemberel, S., Mori, R., & Shibuya, K. (2010). A survey of non-prescribed use of antibiotics for children in an urban community in Mongolia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(12), 930–936. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.10.079004

Usman Hadi, Kuntaman Kuntaman, Mariyatul Qiptiyah, H. P. (2013). PROBLEM OF ANTIBIOTIC USE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN INDONESIA: ARE WE REALLY MAKING PROGRESS? Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease. 4(4):5-8., 4(4), 5–8.

WHO. (2001). World Health Organization (2001) Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance: World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response (CSR).

Widayati, A., Suryawati, S., De Crespigny, C., & Hiller, J. E. (2011). Self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia: A cross sectional population-based survey. BMC Research Notes, 4(1), 491. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-491

Zafar Ahmed, Shaukat Saeed Khan, M. K. (2013). In Vitro Trials of Some Antimicrobial Combinations Againts Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Saudi J Biol Sci, 20(1), 79–83. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23961224/


Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 24 times
 Fulltext (Bahasa Indonesia) Downloaded : 10 times

Dimensions, PlumX, and Google Scholar Metrics

10.30604/jika.v6i1.433



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.